Preface
Table of Contents
( Book /
Chapter 11)

11 Reflections, Elaborations, and Discussions with Readers

11.1 Causal, Statistical, and Graphical Vocabulary

11.1.1 Is the causal-statistical dichotomy necessary?

11.1.2 *d*-Separation Without Tears (Chapter 1, pp. 16-18)

11.3 Estimating Causal Effects

11.3.1 The intuition behind the back-door criterion (Chapter 3, p. 79)

11.3.2 Demystifying "strong ignorability"

11.3.3 Alternative proof of the back-door criterion

11.3.4 Data vs. knowledge in covariate selection

11.3.5 Understanding Propensity Scores

11.5.3 Defending the Causal Interpretation of SEM (or SEM Survival Kit)

11.5.4 Where Is Economic Modeling Today? -- Courting Causes with Heckman

11.5.5 External Variation vs. Surgery

Bibliography

Errata for Second Edition - reprinted with corrections, 2010.

Errata corrected in 2013 reprinting plus errata prepared for next printing (updated July 27, 2020).